Post New Ad
Author: 
Category: 
Health and Beauty
Created: 
09 October 2019
Views: 
1035

Contraindications & Precautions

 

There remains some controversy over exactly what does and does not constitute a contraindication to each modality. In addition to any list produced, it is essential that the therapist makes a professional judgement as no listing can cover all variations and clinical circumstances.

 

The lists of contraindications (by modality) below are derived from consensus rather than claiming to be a definitive list. They are included here to assist and the author makes no claim for their mutual exclusivity or comprehensiveness.

 

Biofeedback

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Dermatological conditions (e.g. eczema, dermatitis) Allergy to the electrode or contact material (tape / gel)

Patients who are unable to understand or respond to the instructions of the therapist

Patients with pacemakers (although not directly affected by the EMG Biofeedback, they may be susceptible to electromagnetic fields in the therapy environment. If in doubt, check with the appropriate authority.) Electrodes should not normally be placed over the eyes or other sensitive tissue

 

PRECAUTIONS

If a patient has a diminished skin sensation, the full benefit of the therapy may not be realised. If alternative placement of the electrodes over normally sensitive skin is not possible, extra care should be taken.

Patients with epilepsy may experience an adverse response to the visual display (flashing lights / computer screen). Such patients should be treated with caution and careful monitoring following consultation between the therapist and the appropriate medical practitioner.

 

Cryotherapy

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

General, advanced cardiovascular disease Local areas of impaired peripheral circulation

Extensive scar tissue – poor blood supply may lead to ice burns

Deep X Ray therapy or other ionising radiations in the last 6 months in the region being treated Malignant tissue

Subjects with reduced levels of consciousness or impaired understanding Acute febrile illness

Some acute skin conditions e.g. eczema, dermatitis

Open or infected wounds (without appropriate precautions) Vasospasm (e.g. Raynauds disease)

Cryoglobulinaemia Cold urticaria

 

PRECAUTIONS

Do not allow tissue to become waterlogged

Very large areas (e.g. bilateral lower limbs) should never be subjected to temperatures below 20C Cryotherapy is usually applied with a wet / damp surface against the skin

 

Hot Packs

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Impaired circulation

Areas of recent bleeding or haemorrhage Lack of local thermal sensation

Devitalised tissue e.g. after deep X ray therapy Open wounds

Impaired circulation of the part to be treated Malignancy

 

PRECAUTIONS

Never allow a patient to lie on top of a hot pack, particularly if treating the trunk

Avoid using hot packs on very overweight patients as the tissues may not dissipate the heat effectively and thus lead to a burn

Moisture may encourage damaged or infected skin to break down

 

Interferential Therapy

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients who do not comprehend the physiotherapist’s instructions or are unable to co-operate should not be treated

Patients who are taking anticoagulation therapy or have a history of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis should not be treated with the vacuum electrode applications

Similarly, patients whose skin may be easily damaged or bruised Application over:

The trunk or pelvis during pregnancy

Active or suspected malignancy except in hospice care The eyes

The anterior aspect of the neck

The carotid sinuses (stimulation in this area may cause a drop in blood pressure) Patients with pacemakers

Dermatological conditions e.g. dermatitis, broken skin

Danger of haemorrhage or current tissue bleeding (e.g. recent soft tissue injury) Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children

 

PRECAUTIONS

Care should be taken to maintain the suction at a level below that which causes damage / discomfort to the patient

If there is abnormal skin sensation, electrodes should be positioned in a site other than this area to ensure effective stimulation

Patients who have abnormal circulation

For patients who have febrile conditions, the outcome of the first treatment should be monitored

Patients who have epilepsy, advanced cardiovascular consitions or cardiac arrhythmias should be treated at the discretion of the physiotherapist in consultation with the appropriate medical practitioner

Treatment which involves placement of electrodes over the anterior chest wall

 

InrfaRed

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Areas with poor or deficient skin sensation Generalised advanced cardiovascular disease Local areas of impaired peripheral circulation Extensive scar tissue

Deep X Ray treatment or other ionizing radiation (in the last 6 months) in the region being treated Malignant tissue (except in terminal / palliative / hospice care)

Subjects with reduced levels of consciousness or impaired understanding Acute febrile illness

Some acute skin conditions e.g. eczema, dermatitis Sensitive structures (e.g. eyes and testes)

 

PRECAUTIONS

Never position the lamp such that it could drop onto the patient

 

Laser Therapy

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Active or suspected carcinoma (except in hospice care) Direct irradiation of the eyes

Cognitive difficulties or unreliable patients Increased sensitivity to light

Irradiation over the pregnant uterus

 

PRECAUTIONS

Avoid irradiation of the gonads

Avoid irradiation of patients with a history of epilepsy Avoid irradiation of areas of altered skin sensitivity

Ensure that the patient understands the nature of the treatment and related dangers Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children

 

Low Frequency Current

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients who do not comprehend the physiotherapist’s instructions, or who do not cooperate should not be treated

Patients with pacemakers

Patients who have an allergic response to the electrode / tape / gel

Patients with skin conditions (e.g. eczema, dermatitis)

Patients with current or recent bleeding / haemorrhage

Patients with open wounds

Patients with compromised circulation e.g. ischaemic tissue, thrombosis and associated conditions Application over :

The anterior aspect of the neck or carotid sinus Lower trunk, abdomen or pelvis during pregnancy The eyes

Anaesthetic areas

 

PRECAUTIONS

If the skin sensation is not normal, it is preferable to position the electrodes at an alternative site which ensures effective circulation

Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children

Select stimulation parameters appropriate to the effect deasired. Inappropriate stimulation parameters may cause muscle damage, reduction in blood flow through the muscle and low frequency muscle fatigue Appropriate care should be taken to ensure that the level of muscle contraction initiated does not compromise the muscle nor the joint(s) over which it acts

Patients with a history of epilepsy should be treated at the discretion of the physiotherapist in consultation with the appropriate medical practitioner

 

Microwave Diathermy

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Areas of poor or deficint skin sensation Metal in the tissues

Circulatory compromise or deficit including ischaemia, thrombosis and associated conditions Advanced cardiovascular conditions

Pacemakers Pregnancy

Recent or current haemorrhage

Aviod irradiation to the abdomen or pelvis during menstruation Malignancy

Active tuberculosis

Deep X Ray treatment or other ionizing radiation (in the last 6 months) in the region to be treated Patients who are unable to understand the instructions provided or who are unable to cooperate with the treatment demands

 

PRECAUTIONS

Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children

Irradiation of the eyes should be avoided and when exposure is likely, protective goggles should be worn by the patient

Avoid other specialised tissues (e.g. testes)

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

There is some controversy as to the thermal nature od PSWD, but in the light of recent research, it is suggested that in order to stay below the level at which thermal accumulation may occur, a mean power of less than 5 Watts should be employed, especially if tissue heating is considered inappropriate. If mean power levels are employed such as to achieve tissue heating, then the contraindications listed for continuous shortwave must be employed. It is acceptable to use PSWD machines as a thermal intervention so long as the appropriate precautions are taken.

 

Non Thermal Applications (below 5 Watts mean power)

Circulatory compromise or deficit including ischaemic tissue, thrombosis and associated conditions

Pacemakers Pregnancy

Recent or current haemorrhage

Avoid treatment of the abdomen and pelvis during menstruation Malignancy

Active tuberculosis

Deep X Ray therapy or other ionizing radiations (in the last 6 months) in the region to be treated Patients who are unable to comprehend the therapists instructions or who are unable to cooperate It is considered safe to deliver a low dose (less than 5 Watts mean power) when there is metal in

the tissues

Metal plinths are generally considered acceptable when the applied mean power is less than 5

Watts

 

PRECAUTIONS

Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children Avoid specialised tissues (e.g. eye and testes)

 

PHYSIOTHERAPIST SAFETY

In the interest of physiotherapist safety, it is recommended that once the machine has been switched on, the physiotherapist and all other personnel should keep at least 1 metre from the operating machine, leads and electrodes. Pregnant physiotherapists or others with concerns may want to ask a colleague to turn the SWD

/ PSWD machine on. Almost all moderm machines will turn off automatically. It si recommended that physiotherapists consult the ‘Safe Practice with Electrotherapy(shortwave Therapies)’ document (CSP 1997) for further information.

 

OTHER ELECTROTHERAPY APPARATUS

It is recommended that other electrotherapy devices, especially electrical stimulation apparatus, are kept at least 2 metres from the SWD / PSWD machine. The output of some machines (e.g. interferential therapy devices) can be affected by close proximity to an operating SWD / PSWD machine. Departments / physiotherapists should establish the conflicts between their particular SWD / PSWD and electrical stimulation apparatus as these will not be the same for all combinations of equipment. It is considered unwise to operate two SWD / PSWD machines simultaneously without maintaining a separation of at least 3 metres.

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Areas of poor or deficient thermal skin sensation Metal in the tissues

Circulatory compromise or deficit including ischaemic tissue, thrombosis and associated conditions Advanced cardiovascular conditions

Pacemakers Pregnancy

Recent or current haemorrhage

Avoid irradiation of the lower trunk, abdomen or pelvis during menstruation Malignancy

Active tuberculosis

Deep X Ray therapy or other ionizing radiations (in the last 6 months) in the region to be treated Patients who are unable to cooperate

 

PRECAUTIONS

Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children Avoid specialised tissues (e.g. eye and testes)

 

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients who do not comprehend the physiotherapist’s instructions or who are unable to cooperate Avoid the application of the electrodes over the trunk abdomen or pelvis during pregnancy with the exception of the use of TENS for labour pain

Pacemaker

Patients who have an allergic response to the electrodes, gel or tape Dermatological conditions e.g. dermatitis, eczema

 

PRECAUTIONS

If there is abnormal skin sensation, the electrodes should be positioned in a site other than this area to ensure effective stimulation

Electrodes should not be placed over the eyes

Patients who have epilepsy should be treated at the discretion of the physiotherapist in consultation with the appropriate medical practitioner

Avoid active epiphyseal regions in children

The use of abdominal electrodes during labour may interfere with foetal monitoring equipment

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Avoid exposure to the developing foetus Malignancy

Vascular abnormalities including DVT and severe atherosclerosis Acute infections

Haemophiliacs not covered by replacement factor Application over :

Specialised tissue e.g. eye and testes

The stellate ganglion

The cardiac area in advanced heart disease The spinal cord following laminectomy The cranium

Active epiphyseal regions in children

 

PRECAUTIONS

Anaesthetic areas should be treated with caution if a thermal dose is being applied Subcutaneous major nerves and bony prominences

Always use the lowest intensity which produces a therapeutic response Ensure that the applicator is moved throughout the treatment

Ensure that the patient is aware of the nature of the treatment and the expected effects

If pain, discomfort or unexpected sensations are experienced by the ptient, the treatment intensity should be reduced. If the symptoms persist, the treatment should be terminated.

 

Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Absolute xeroderma pigmentosum Gorlin’s syndrome

Hereditary dysplastic naevus syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Dermatomyositis

Trichothlodystrophy Bloom’s syndrome Cockayne’s syndrome

Previous malignant melanoma

 

Relative contraindications – major Age less than 10 years

Previous or current non-melanoma skin cancer Previous exposure to arsenic or ionising radiation Current premalignant skin lesions

Concomitant immunosupressive therapy Pregnancy (applies to PUVA treatments only) Some forms of porphyria

 

Relative contraindications – minor Age less than 16 years

Cataracts (applies to PUVA treatments only) Bullous pamphigoid

Pemphigus

Previous or concomitant treatment with methotrexate

Significant hepatic dysfunction (applies to PUVA treatments only)

Patients with a history of epilepsy should be treated at the discretion of the physiotherapist in consultation with the appropriate medical practitioner

 

PRECAUTIONS

Avoid unnecessary exposure to sunlight on treatment days

Patient should wear UV opaque eye protection during treatment (and for the remainder of the day in the case of PUVA)

Ensure that the patient is not taking photosensitising medication

Female patients and male patients’ female partners should preferably avoid conception during treatment (applies to PUVA treatments only)

 

Wax

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Impaired circulation

Areas of recent bleeding or haemorrhage Lack of thermal sensation

Devitalised tissue (e.g. after Deep X Ray therapy) Open wounds

Infection Malignancy

Acute inflammation

Skin conditions (e.g. acute dermatitis, eczema) Unstable, fragile or early stage skin grafts

 

PRECAUTIONS

The ‘dip and re-immerse’ method should be avoided in patients with significant oedema

Cooler wax temperatures are required for the foot than the hand

Moisture may encourage damaged or infected skin to break down.

 

Report Abuse Print
Post New Ad